Ten years of genomics for ectomycorrhizal fungi: what have we achieved and where are we headed?
Francis Martin and Gregory Bonito
2012 January 01 Edible Ectomycorrhizal Mushrooms: Curretn Knowledge and Future Perspectives
The science of edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms (EEMMs) is a rapidly advancing
field, as has been clearly demonstrated in the previous chapters of this book.
Agronomic aspects pertaining to the practice of EEMM cultivation are adapting
to new data and insights from published studies. Major achievements of the past
two decades of EEMM research include both genetic tools and a phylogenetic
framework to discern EM species and their populations which have advanced our knowledge
on fundamental aspects of EM biology, ecology, and evolution. As we discuss
below, mycorrhizal genomics is well underway. Beginning with the genome
sequencing of Laccaria bicolor and
followed by that of the black truffle Tuber melanosporum, sequencing efforts are now underway on the genomes of more than 30 other
ectomycorrhizal species (and hundreds of fungal pathogens, endophytes, and
saprotrophsâsee below). Technological advances are a major force driving science and human understanding
of the natural world. Just as the invention of the telescope spawned
astronomy and the microscope opened our eyes to microbiology, advances
in modern technology (e.g., supercomputing, high-throughput DNA sequencing,
nanotechnology) are revolutionizing global sciences. Major breakthroughs
are expected in many disciplines. Yet, the emergence of genomics and related â-omicsâ sciences (i.e., transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, etc.) are not
ends in themselves, rather, they provide maps and tools to aid in our study and
understanding of the molecular basis for EM symbiosis and ecosystem functioning.
This generation of â-omicsâ science will address fundamental questions regarding
signaling cascades and gene processes involved in the mycorrhizal phenomenon,
including the formation of fungal fruiting bodies, and interacting factors (environmental,
host, helper bacteria, pathogens). With such insights, new strategies for
promoting mycorrhization and in developing selective host and fungal strains for
EEMM production will arise.
In this volume on âEdible Ectomycorrhizal Mushrooms,â the contributors provide
essential background, reviews, and research on major topics concerning basic
and applied facets of EEMM science. The first section of this book covers major
topics pertaining to the ecology, biology, and systematics of EEMMs. In the second
section, a global perspective on the propagation and cultivation of EEMM is given.
Social, economic, and health aspects between EEMM and people are addressed in
the third section. Here we attempt to synthesize some of the more recent advances
in genomes, transcriptomics, and proteomics that are propelling EEMM science,
and we assume the precarious task of speculating on the future of this field.
Martin F and Bonito G. 2012. Ten years of genomics for ectomycorrhizal fungi: what have we achieved and where are we headed? In: Edible Ectomycorrhizal Mushrooms: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives. (ed. A Zambonelli and B Bonito), Soil Biology Series, Vol. 34 pp383-401. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg